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Experimental Fishing (PIR) | Michael Spratt

Experimental Fishing (PIR)

Technical Description of PIR


PIR is a system for storing and extracting fishing data for presentation and statistical analysis.

Experimental fishing is performed for a varity of reasons mostly for scientific inventorying and sampling of aquatic fauna.

Personnel and material are deployed at pre-selected aquatic sites in order to record data concerning the specimens capture.  The data obtained usually concerns the species, it’s size (length, weight), sex, body conditions, also relative abundance and if necessary the concentration of inorganic elements in body tissue.

Data from these field captures is recorded for later study, which is the purpose of PIR.

This project had several members, the lead organization was RDI (ex. ORSTOM).  The application was developed using FOXPRO2 while the user interface is French.


The 11 main files of PIR are organized as follows :

Struct_2.gif (2471 bytes)

An Operation is performed resulting in the Capture of Fish, which are studied and the data recorded.

The Operation also links to the Habitat description and the Equipment used.

The Operation is also indexed to the Fishing Effort which descries the exact location of the operation.

 


Another way of seeing the file structure is :

Struct_1.gif (2535 bytes)

The “Basin” is the river basin i.e. Amazon.

Sector is a section of the river which is divided into stations.

Station is a specific location within a section of a river.

Fishing a station is an Operation which uses certain
Equipment under environmental or Habitat conditions.

If Fish are captured the species, and other data i.e.
stomach content, are determined and recorded.

 


Menu

The menu has 4 major choices : dynamic files (Gestion), list files (Listes), processing (Exploitation) and utilities (Utilitaires).  Sub-choices are shown under the principle menus.

Menu.gif (33603 bytes)

Dynamic files are : The source (river or data collection, i.e. Amazon, Guinée, etc.), Fishing effort (Pêche), Habitat (Habitat), Operation (Opération) and Fish (Poison).

List files are :
Station, Sector (Secteur), Basin (Bassin), Species (Especes), Species Details (Détail d’Espece), Equipment (Engins), Stomach Content (Contenu Stomacal).

Processing manipulates files and data and performs user commands.
View Files/data (Vue), Reset Selections (R à Z Sélection), Selection level (Niveaux de Sélection), Extract Data (Extraction) and Calculations (Calculs).

Utilities provide a DOS interface, file indexing and file compression, sorting and re-indexing

 


File Control

All data entry mask are accompanied by a control window, shown below.  This menu permits the users to perform operation upon the data file.

Operations include : Add – add a record, Beg – go to beginning of file, Copy – copy the current record, Del – delete current record, End – go to the end of the file, Find – locate and list specific records, Next – skip to next record, Prev – skip back one record, Quit – quit and return to main menu.

Control.gif (3348 bytes)


Fish

The biggest and most dynamic data files are the fish files.  One file for each different data collection or a file for a concatenated data sets.

This file stores the : length, weight, evaluation type for weight (1=individual, 2=average for a group, 3=part of an individual), sex code, (1=not observed, 2=undetermined, 3=Male, 4=female), maturity (1=not observed, 2=immature, 3=not mature, 4=pre-mature, 5=advanced maturity, 6=spawning, 7=post-spawn), gonad weight,   jar number (if individual is stored), stomach fill (1=not observed, 2=empty, 3=a quarter full, 4=half full, 5=full),  content of stomach (maximum of 6 different items selected from a list), comments and notes.

Plus the key values for each individual.  The Species Code and Operation Code.

Poisson.gif (16311 bytes)


Stomach Content

Contains a code for the food and a type or name :  99=Not Observed, 1=Plankton, 2=Detritus, 3=Algues, etc..

Stomach.gif (3900 bytes)

 


Operation

This file groups all the other files via the operation code, fishing code and equipment code
It also stores the starting and ending time, section of the net where individual were captured and the type of net (1=surface, 2=bottom, 3=drift).

Operation.gif (6316 bytes)

 


Habitat Profile

Environmental features are recorded in this file.  The operation code links this record to the Operations file.
A record stores the mean depth of the operation, the nature of the river bank (1=dirt, 2=sand, 3=rocky),  distance from the bank, vegetation coverage (1=none, 2=emerged, 3=low cover, 4=high cover), type of river bed (1=flowing, 2=congested, 3=rocky, 4=undercuts bank) and comments or memos.

Habitat.gif (8136 bytes)


Equipment

The Equipment Code links this file to the Operations file.   A short text for the equipment type describes the material (i.e. Strainer net, Rotenone, etc) while an equipment name is the material name.  mesh size (in mm), net length and height (in meters), type of filament (1=mono, 2=multi) and its diameterComment and extra fields where added.

Equipment.gif (9903 bytes)


Fishing Effort

The Fishing  and Station Codes link this file to the  Operations   and  Station files.
Each record contains the date, equipment type, duration (in hours), mean water height (in m), water temperature (in C), transparence (in m), pH, conductivity, oxygen content (in mg/l), vegetation type and comments
.

Peche.gif (6689 bytes)


Station

The principle key is the Station Code while the Sector Code relates each record to the Sector file.

This file stores the station name, station type (river, flood plain, dead end, etc.), river name, river sequence, Latitude (in degrees, minutes and seconds), Longitude, (ddd:mm:ss), altitude (in m), distance from source (in km), distance from mouth (in km) and comments.

Station.gif (7354 bytes)

 


Sector

The principle key is the sector code, the secondary key the basin code which relates the sector file to the Basin file.
This file stores the sector name and comments

Sector.gif (3613 bytes)

.


Basin

This file describes the river basin.  Its only key is the Basin code.  The files stores the basin name, basin sequence number
length
(in km), surface (of drainage basin), mean flow volume (in M3), maximum volume, minimum volume, continent, minimum latitude, maximum latitude, minimum longitude, maximum longitude, climatic zone (humid, tropical, arid, etc.),
vegetation zone
and comments.

Basin.gif (7944 bytes)

 


Species

The principle key is the species code which relates this file to the Fish file.  A record stores the genius, species, family, 3 synonyms for the genius and species, 2 common names and bibliographic reference.

Species.gif (7173 bytes)


Details of Species

This data file stores information related to the species and how certain calculations are to be performed during processing and analysis.  The principle key is the species code which relates to the Species and Fish files.    It stores the minimum length, maximum length, length step (length in cm of a size group.  This determines how many size groups a species is classified into.).

Species_details.gif (4497 bytes)


View Data

This screen allows the user to display all the files (Vue Oui/Non)  and set their relationship to one of three configurations.
1) Standard, just list the files and permits access without sequences or relations to other files. 2) Relational which organizes the files using the Operation as the master file.  3) Filter, set the Basin file as master file

View.gif (5148 bytes)

2) Relational – structures the data around an Operation 3) Filtered – generates a Basin -> Operation relationship
Struct_2.gif (2471 bytes) Struct_1.gif (2535 bytes)

Reset Selection, Selection and Extraction.

Creating a SQL Results file requires 3 steps :

1)  Resetting the selection to initializes all data to unselected.   Without resetting, the SQL program will include selections from previous analysis.

Reset.gif (3830 bytes)

 

2) Select the level of  selection.  The selection levels are Basin, Sector, Station, Fishing Effort, Operation or Species.  In this example the user selects the species by placing a “T” in the active column.

Selection.gif (12841 bytes)

 

3) Extract which will create an SQL program based upon the selections and generate the Results data file.

Extract.gif (3832 bytes)


SQL code generation

Extraction of the data is simple as it requires the user to select the level of intervention (Basin, Sector, Station, Fishing Effort, Operation or Species) and the data required (a species or group of species, a date, or section, etc.) .  Selected records require the user to activate it by placing a .T. in the active field.

Once the selections have been made an SQL program is generated, based upon a template and the activated records.  The SQL program is executed and corresponding records extracted to a new data file (Result_sql.dbf).

The user then executes the required calculation and report type.  There are 10 different data files  required to generate the 10 different reports.  The reports are : 1) Size2) Minimum Reproduction Size3) Number of Reproduction Cycles per Year, 4) Migration, 5) Diet, 6) Size Structure, 7) Fish Size vs. Net Size, 8) Seasonal Body Condition, 9) Species Table, and 10)  Environment.


Calculations

1) Size

Sizes (by species), displaying the number of individuals, maximum, mean and minimum and standard deviation for weight and length.  If a species has a minimum number of individuals the relation for the body size and weight (r,a,& b) can be calculated.

calc_1.gif (5087 bytes)

Species Number  Max  Min  Mean   STD   Max   Min   Mean    STD   R      A       B
Longer                  Weight

ABREV   1     140.0 140.0 140.0  0.00  45.0  45.0   45.00  0.00 0.0000 0.0000   0.0000
ADEN2   4     240.0 230.0 235.0  5.00 145.0 137.0  141.0   4.00 0.0000 0.0000   0.0000
AFALC   95    365.0 179.0 253.9 37.11 480.0  48.0  161.1  75.63 0.9649 2.9419 -11.27
AGEN2   1     133.0 133.0 133.0  0.00  44.0  44.0  44.00   0.00 0.0000 0.0000   0.0000

 


2 Minimum Reproduction Size.

This is a table generated for each species, by sex.  The species is divided and grouped according to lengths described in the Details of Species. The number of individuals per group and their maturity is totaled and displayed.

calc_2.gif (8003 bytes)
 Species AFALC sex 3					Maturity‚ 
    min         max     group    non obs/immature/nonmat/debutmat/matadvn/ponte/postpont/Total 
   10.0    -   20.0       1         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
   20.0    -   30.0       2         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
   30.0    -   40.0       3         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
   40.0    -   50.0       4         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
   ..........................................................................................
    130    -    140      13         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    140    -    150      14         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    150    -    160      15         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    160    -    170      16         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    170    -    180      17         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    180    -    190      18         0       1       0       0       0       0       0       1 
    190    -    200      19         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    200    -    210      20         1       1       0       0       0       0       0       2 
    210    -    220      21         1       3       1       0       0       0       0       5 
    220    -    230      22         0       5       0       0       0       0       0       5 
    230    -    240      23         1       4       6       0       0       0       0      11 
    240    -    250      24         2       5       7       0       0       0       0      14 
    250    -    260      25         1       5       4       0       0       0       0      10 
    260    -    270      26         0       3       0       0       0       0       0       3 
    270    -    280      27         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    280    -    290      28         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
     ..........................................................................................
    350    -    360      35         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    360    -    370      36         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    370    -    380      37         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
                                    6       27      18      0       0       0       0      51 
   
   
 Species AFALC sex 4					Maturity 
    min         max     group    non obs/immature/nonmat/debutmat/matadvn/ponte/postpont/Total 
   10.0    -   20.0       1         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
   20.0    -   30.0       2         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
   30.0    -   40.0       3         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
   40.0    -   50.0       4         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
   ..........................................................................................
    170    -    180      17         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    180    -    190      18         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    190    -    200      19         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    200    -    210      20         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
    210    -    220      21         1       0       0       0       0       0       0       1 
    220    -    230      22         0       1       0       0       0       0       0       1 
    230    -    240      23         1       2       1       0       0       0       0       4 
    240    -    250      24         3       8       1       0       0       0       0      12 
    250    -    260      25         4       8       2       0       0       0       0      14 
    260    -    270      26         2       7       1       0       0       0       0      10 
    270    -    280      27         1       3       3       0       0       0       0       7 
    280    -    290      28         1       1       1       0       0       0       0       3 
   ..........................................................................................
    350    -    360      35         0       1       0       0       0       0       0       1 
    360    -    370      36         0       1       0       0       0       0       0       1 
    370    -    380      37         0       0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
			           13      37      16       0       1       0       0      67 

3 Number of Reproduction Cycles per Year

This table also groups species by sex and presents the dates they where captured and the total number of individuals per maturity type.

calc_3.gif (6393 bytes)

 

 Species PMONT sex 3                     Maturity
        date                      1       2       3       4       5       6       7 
                               non obs/immat / non mat/déb mat/mat adv/ ponte/post ponte 
     09/10/86                     0       1       0       0       0       0       0 
     06/12/86                     0       5       0       0       0       0       0 
     29/06/87                     1       7      16       1       0       0       0 
     04/09/87                     1       2       4       0       0       0       0 
     02/11/87                     1       2       3       0       0       0       0 
    
    
 Species PMONT sex 4                   Maturity 
        date                      1       2       3       4       5       6       7 
                               non obs/immat / non mat/déb mat/mat adv/ ponte/post ponte 
     09/10/86                     0       0       0       0       0       0       0 
     06/12/86                     3      14       5       0       0       0       0 
     29/06/87                     8       5       8       0       0       0       0 
     04/09/87                     2      14      38       0       0       0       0 
     02/11/87                     1       2      14       0       0       0       0 

 


4 Migration

This program creates a table of the species captured at a station  for a given date.  The number of individuals is presented next to the total weight.

calc_4.gif (3766 bytes)

 

Station = LGPD 
                   Number/Weight   Number/Weight   Number/Weight   Number/Weight   
                     18/08/86       09/10/86       06/12/86       29/06/87       

                      1   0,00       0              0              0          
 PCAST               37  19139      26 4701,0       7 3137,0      26 8892,0   
 PMONT                0              4 508,00      59  12691     154  22201   
 SNATT               47 8049,0     315  57155      55 8226,0      71  16213   
 TANGU               10 1220,0     111 8798,0      45 3577,0      23 2384,0   
 TELON               27 1583,0     137 7926,0      58 3954,0      61 7508,0   
 	
 Station = LGPD 
                   Number/Weight   Number/Weight   
                     04/09/87       02/11/87       
                      0              0          
 PCAST                1 976,00      24 6398,0   
 PMONT               67 9740,0      33 4377,0   
 SNATT               12 1505,0       6 1321,0   
 TANGU              113 9223,0     110 3143,0   
 TELON               15 1081,0       0          

 


5 Diet

This report creates a table of species (1 species per line) with the total occurrence of an aliment found in the stomach.

calc_5.gif (4156 bytes)


            1      2     3     4      5  …………..    14    15    16    99
Planc/Detri/Algue/Fruit/Fleur/…………../Autre/Ecail/Oeufs/Frenc/Non o/
ABREV         1     1      1    1     1   ………….    0     0      0     0     0
AELON         0     0      0    0     0   
………….     0     0      0     0    25
AEQUI         0     0      0    0     0   ………….     0     0      0     0    11
AFALC         0     0      0    0     0   ………….     2     7       0     0   167


6 Size Structure

For every species, the amount of food in the stomach  (1=not observed, 2=empty, 3=a quarter full, 4=half full, 5=full), in relation to the time of capture.

calc_6.gif (6565 bytes)

 

Species ABREV      Debut       Fin    Matin    Apres
     Remp Sto        1         2       3        4 
                   Vide      1/3      2/3     Plein
                   19,00     1,00     7,00    13,00
      1               0        0        0        0   
      2               0        0        0        0   
      3               0        0        0        0   
      4               0        0        0        0   
      5               0        0        0        0   
    
    
 Species ADEN2      Debut      Fin    Matin    Apres
     Remp Sto        1         2       3        4 
                   Vide      1/3      2/3     Plein
                   19,00     1,00     7,00    13,00
      1               0        0        0        0   
      2               0        0        0        0   
      3               0        0        0        0   
      4               0        0        0        0   
      5               0        0        0        0      

7 Fish Size vs. Net Size

This report groups the species by size and calculates the number of individual per group in relation the size of net used to capture the individuals. 

calc_7.gif (8139 bytes)

Species    group    min          max          nom ind

AEQUI         1     60,0     –   70,0          0,0000
AEQUI         2     70,0     –   80,0          0,0000
AEQUI         3     80,0     –   90,0          0,0000
AEQUI         4     90,0     –    100          0,0000
AEQUI         5      100     –    110          2,8302
AEQUI         6      110     –    120          8,4906
AEQUI         7      120     –    130          0,0000
AEQUI         8      130     –    140          0,0000

 


8 Seasonal Body Condition

This report performs an analysis of variance of individuals in relation to their weight, length, sex, body condition, date captured and the station.

calc_8.gif (3763 bytes)

 

Species   Weight   Length   Sex     K           Date         Station
PCAST     142,0     209,0    3        4,65   29/06/87     LGPD
PCAST     411,0     211,0    4      13,11   18/08/86     LGPD
PCAST     410,0     214,0    4      12,58   18/08/86     LGPD
PCAST     174,0     226,0    1        4,58   29/06/87     LGPD
PCAST     188,0     228,0    3        4,83   29/06/87     LGPD
PCAST     200,0     228,0    3        5,14   29/06/87     LGPD
PCAST     190,0     230,0    3        4,76   29/06/87     LGPD
……………………………………………………………………………….

PCAST     274,0     250,0    3      5,44    29/06/87     LGPD
PCAST     260,0     252,0    3       5,05   29/06/87     LGPD
PCAST     220,0     252,0    4       4,27   02/11/87     LGPD
PCAST     228,0     252,0    3       4,43   02/11/87     LGPD
PCAST     240,0     253,0    1       4,61   18/08/86     LGPD
PCAST     245,0     253,0    1       4,71   09/10/86     LGPD
PCAST     228,0     253,0    3       4,38   02/11/87     LGPD
PCAST     212,0     254,0    4       4,03   02/11/87     LGPD
PCAST     285,0     260,0    4       5,07   29/06/87     LGPD
……………………………………………………………………………….

PCAST     322,0     274,0    1      4,95    09/10/86     LGPD
PCAST     332,0     276,0    3       5,00   29/06/87     LGPD
PCAST     372,0     278,0    3       5,49   29/06/87     LGPD
PCAST     181,0     278,0    3       2,67   06/12/86     LGPD
PCAST     315,0     280,0    3       4,56   02/11/87     LGPD
PCAST     325,0     283,0    4       4,56   02/11/87     LGPD
PCAST     350,0     288,0    3       4,68   06/12/86     LGPD
PCAST     375,0     299,0    3       4,52   02/11/87     LGPD


9 Species Table

This report requires the user to select the level (Station, Fishing Effort,   Operation or Date)  of analysis for a species.  The screen presents the number of elements per level.  In the example below the report is by Fishing Effort (PECHE).

 

calc_9.gif (12385 bytes)

 

 Number           PECHE          rpt no = 2 
                    37              38              40              44              45  
 AEQUI               0               0               0               0           9,434 
 AFALC           0,943               0               0               0               0       
    
 Weight           PECHE  rpt no = 2 
                    37              38              40              44              45           
                130,84               0               0               0               0       
 AEQUI               0               0               0               0          583,96       
 AFALC        41330,11               0               0               0               0       

10  Environment

As in the Species Table, the use selects the level (Station, Fishing Effort or Operation) of analysis.  In the example below the report is by Fishing Effort. The report summarizes the environmental conditions for each effort.

  

Calc_10.gif (11793 bytes)

 Parameters                    Peche   
                      37           38           40           44           45      
    
 CODE_STA          LGPD         LGPD         LGPD         LGPD         LGPD       
 TYPE_STA                                                                         
 LAT                                                                              
 LON                                                                              
 ALT                   0            0            0            0            0      
 DIST_SRC              0            0            0            0            0      
 DIST_EMB              0            0            0            0            0      
 COUR_EAU                                                                         
 ORDRE                 0            0            0            0            0      
 CODE_PEC             37           38           40           44           45      
 DATE_PEC       18/08/86     04/09/87     09/10/86     02/11/87     06/12/86      
 TYPE_ENG       FM           FM           FM           FM           FM            
 TEMP                                                                             
 HAUT_EAU              0            0            0            0            0      
 TEMP               0.00         0.00         0.00         0.00         0.00      
 TRAN               0.00         0.00         0.00         0.00         0.00      
 PH                 0.00         0.00         0.00         0.00         0.00      
 COND                0.0          0.0          0.0          0.0          0.0      
 COUV                  0            0            0            0            0      
 OXY                 0.0          0.0          0.0          0.0          0.0      
   

Conclusion