Your server is running PHP version 5.3.29 but this plugin requires at least PHP 5.4. Please run an upgrade.

Total Life Cycle Accounting | Michael Spratt

Total Life Cycle Accounting

Total Life Cycle Accounting

We now have data and tools to calculate the up and downstream effects for almost all manufactured products.
Thus, we can calculate Externalization Costs (EC) and establish Extended Product Responsibility (EPR). This can effect business practices by providing an idea of a product”s foot-print.

Products have an elimentry flow or Characterization Factors (CF) which describe a product’s production trail, CF are used to calculate Input and Output-Oriented Indicators (IO). 

An example of Characterization Factors (CF)  are those applied for Global Warming Potential (GWP) or Global Warming Impact (GWI), which are the mass flows of greenhouse gases assigned to a products’s carbon footprint,

Tools such as Multiregional Input-Output (MRIO) analysis, and  Environmentally Extended Input-Output analysis (EEIOA)  and Life Cycle Assessment, are used to analyzing CF and  Input-Output-Oriented Indicators (IO).

All are used to address, objectivity, the “total” cost of producing and destroying a product.  These Input-Output Modells (IOM) require large interconnect databases and appropriate tools.

Plus, there are standards and guidelines for example, The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Member States have agreed on 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and here.


openLCA is an open source and free software for Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment,


EXIOBASE is a global, detailed Multi-Regional Environmentally Extended Supply-Use Table (MR-SUT) and Input-Output Table (MR-IOT)

World Input-Output Tables

OECD/WTO Trade in Value Added database Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) databases.


Eora multi-region IO database

Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP)

IndEcol – Industrial Ecology Programme ()

(under construction)